The subsidy for purchase of a BEV as
well as a FCV is EUR1 4,000. This amount is
shared between the government and the carmaker. This means that the sales
contract must indicate that the carmaker has reduced the car price by half of
the overall incentive amount (EUR 2,000), and then the owner can apply for the
second half of the incentive 29 at the limit of 400 000 cars
until 2020 or EUR 600 million 19.
Government also provides incentives in the form of tax exemption, free parking
and access to bus lines 19.
As of April 2017, Germany has 33
constructed hydrogen refueling stations, 12 under construction and 10 in
application process 30.
Table 11 shows the number of charging points in Germany.
11. Number of charging points in Germany 19
Publicly accessible slow chargers
Publicly accessible fast charger s
shows the Number of FCVs in
Germany from 2013 to 2017.
12. Number of FCVs in Germany
Year (beginning of)
Number of FCVs
shows BEV and PHEV stock in
Germany from 2012 20 2016.
13. BEV and PHEV stock in
Germany (2012-2016) 19
Number of BEVs and PHEVs (thousands)
5.26 (70% BEV, 30% PHEV)
12.19 (75% BEV, 25% PHEV)
24.93 (70% BEV, 30% PHEV)
48.12 (62% BEV, 38% PHEV)
72.73 (562% BEV, 44% PHEV)
The development of HRSs in Germany is supported by H2
Mobility which is a joint venture between six industrial partners 31.
This program is pursued in three phases:
Phase 0: enhancing R&D
and demonstration activities;
Phase 1: market preparation
Phase 2: attracting
Government is planning to invest 300 million euros in
extending the network of fast-recharging stations 32.
The estimated numbers of cars and HRS announced in 2012 33
shows HRS and FCV deployment for the H2-Mobility roll-out plan in Germany
14. HRS and Car deployment
for the H2-Mobility roll-out plan in Germany through 2030 33
Number of FCVs (thousands)
Number of HRSs
In more recent
publications, a target of 400 HRSs for 2023 is announced 34.
The German Federal Government has the target of putting one million electric
vehicles on the road by 2020, and possibly reaching over five million by 2030 35.
In a report published by Republic of Korea ministry of environment 23,
the FCV target for Germany was mentioned as 650,000 by 2025 and 1.8 million by
2030 which seems optimistic considering the current number of FCVs in Germany.
there is a bonus-malus system based on type-approval CO2 emissions.
Vehicles with CO2 emission between 0 and 20 g per
kilometer receive a bonus of 27% of their purchase price up to €6300. This category includes 100% electric vehicles (BEVs
and FCVs). Vehicles with CO2 emissions
between 21 and 60 g/km are eligible to a bonus covering 20% of their
purchase price up to EUR 4000. This category
includes PHEVs. Vehicles with CO2 emissions above
131 g/km are subject to increased taxes which can mount up to EUR 8,000 3637 38.
France has a
national implementation plan based on a cluster model approach 39.
This approach is deployed in three phases. In the first phase, infrastructure
development is focused on local fleets in the early years. In that sense, HRSs
and FCVs are deployed based on the identification of local clients. This method
guarantees that a good HRS load factor is achievable from the beginning of the
method, Fleet vehicles with predictable driving and refueling patterns which
make regular visits to a refueling station are defined in a cluster. Then one
or multiple HRSs are responsible to support a cluster.
1. HRS supporting vehicle clusters-
method considered in France’s HRS planning 39
In the second phase, clusters are linked together and in the
third phase, FCV full scale commercialization is pursued.
amount of funding for the development of HRSs in France is from European
funding. A European funding for 3 hydrogen refueling stations in Rodez,
Sarreguemines and Paris under the 35 MEUR H2 Mobility Europe project, with the
balance met by private sector companies within the Mobilité Hydrogène France
coalition is secured. Another European funding of 4M EUR is from the Connecting
Europe Facility for the deployment of 15 stations in the Normandy region 40.
financial incentives can take the form of a tax credit equivalent to 30% of a
home charger or subsidies for the installation of residential or workplace
environmental and energy agency (ADEME) covers 50% of costs for normal and fast
charging points for BEVs and 30% of costs for rapid charge points if the
chargers are publicly available.
The “Ville de
demain” project run by the French environmental and energy agency ADEME covers
50% of costs for normal and fast charging points for BEVs and 30% of costs for
rapid charge points, provided these are publicly available 41.
As of November
2016, there were 14 HRSs in France 42. Table 15 shows the number of charging points in France from
2012 to 2016.
Exchange rate for Euro in December 6th, 2017 is 1 EUR ~ 1.18 USD