to Ermeling (2010), different modalities of professional development improved
curricular knowledge and understand areas as diverse as reading comprehension
and science, as well as boosting students’ motivation. Improvement in teachers’
knowledge was detected in a study of the effect of action research on areas of
teachers’ cognition. Results were also produced on teachers’ conceptions and
practices about student self-regulated learning (Hoekstra, 2009). Changes in teacher expectations of
student achievement in low-income communities, was an outcome sustained over
two years of professional development (Timperley & Phillips, 2003).
The effects of long experience in developing literacy instruction skills
resulted in high and low implementers. According to Cantrell & Callaway, 2008,
differences between them were explained in terms of their levels of general, personal
and collective efficacy. Educators
must understand the concepts of professional development and it’s importance to
education. The National Staff Development Council (2007) created a set of nine
(9) standards that all professional development should follow. It includes
content knowledge and quality teaching, research-basis, collaboration, diverse
learning needs, student learning environments, family involvement, evaluation,
data-driven design, and teacher learning.
to Ganzer (2000), professional development refers to the development of a
person in his professional role. Professional seminar workshops and other formal meetings
are part of the professional development experience of a professional. In
addition, professional development and other organized in-service programs are
designed for growth of teachers that can be utilized for
their development (Crowther et al, 2000).
to Brookfield (2005), professional development and in-service training consisted of workshops or
short-term courses that offered teachers new information on specific aspects of
(2003) stated that opportunities and experiences for professional development
over the years had systematic growth and development in the teaching
profession. Opportunities for active learning and specific strategies for professional
development refer to a focus on teacher application of learned materials.
Overall coherence refers to the professional development program perceived as
an integrated whole and development activities building upon each other in a
to Marzano (2003) , standardized staff development activities which do not
allow for effective application would be ineffective in changing teacher
(2003) published a list of characteristics of effective professional development, it states that such programs would optimally be statewide, long term with
follow-up; encourage collegiality; foster agreement among participants on goals
and visions; have a supportive administration; have access to adequate funds
for materials, outside speakers, substitute teachers, and so on; encourage and
develop agreement among participants; acknowledge participants existing beliefs
and practices; and make use of outside staff developers.
and Fifield (2004) described effective professional development as a prolonged
facet of classroom instruction that is integrated, logical and on-going and
incorporates experiences that are consistent with teachers’ goals, aligned with
standards, assessments, other reform initiatives, and beset by the best
et.al (2005), stated that meetings offer rare but crucial opportunities for
teachers to collaborate and also communicate.
Meetings are an integral part of professional development. The meeting can be a
creative process for growth of staff members and innovative solutions to
and Yang (2005), stated that teachers
viewed in-service education to be more effective when the content of the
training are based on their self-reported needs. There are important variables that can improve teachers’
willingness to participate in in-service training programs. These variables are
competent resource persons, involvement of trainees in the training process,
consultation with teachers to assess their needs, and support to teachers to
implement new ideas or innovations acquired in in-service training programs.
to Yang (2005), the needs for In-service training providers to spend some time
listening to teachers’ need, teachers’ voice, and appropriate programs with
suitable speakers before any In-Service Training. In-service training should be
built up from down to top, in which teachers may be empowered to decide which
training activities are suited to them.
According to Edutopia (2008) it is critical for teachers to have ongoing and regular opportunities
to learn from each other. Professional development keeps teachers become updated
on new research on how children learned,
utilized technology for the classroom,
and other resources.
B. Local Literature
According to Zulueta (2006),
the kind of teacher you become is to a large extent influenced by the way you
view the teaching profession. Teaching has always been thought as one of the
noblest professions. The teacher is one of the noblest human beings. Zulueta (2006)
describe a teacher as an individual possesses willingness to assume a responsibilities
to society which is the development of good citizens, the inculcation and
cultivation of the heart, the mind, and the soul of the youth. Thus, teaching
is more of a vocation rather an occupation. If the purpose why an individual
goes into teaching is because he or she wants to have substantial source of
income, he or she is in the wrong profession because one cannot become rich by
being a teacher.
Aguino (2008), described the instructional competencies of
teachers. He points out the following as the responsibilities of the teacher.1.
Employ diagnostic methods, identify students’ proficiency levels, plans short and
long range programs designed to accommodate their needs.2. Establish a
physical, emotional and intellectual climate conducive to teaching-learning
process. . Manage time, space, and resources for the enhancement of
teaching-learning process.4. Employ a variety of methods which will motivate
students. 5. Utilize effective teaching method for the achievement of desired
objective.6. Provide leadership in the establishment of a positive relationship
between pupil and teacher and pupil and
pupil. 7. Select, develop and employ appropriate evaluation techniques to
assess progress of students.
to Dr. Bayocot (2014), Teachers have duties
and responsibilities to perform that support the vision and mission of the
Department of Education. The main objective is to promote effective teaching
and learning process .The main responsibility of teachers is to facilitate
learning process. They are expected to act in a manner deserving of public
trust. Teachers have important role in education. The learners as the center,
teaching serves as the most important means of nurturing the learners’ interest
and potentials. To be able to achieve effective teaching and productive
learning, teachers should be capable of achieving the dimensions of good
teaching. Classroom teachers think about a balance teaching activities in the
classroom with crucial professional upgrading activities. They also think which
skills to teach, what teaching strategies to use, what enrichment activities
and what learning experiences to provide.
the National Competency Based Teaching Standards (NCBTS) as a framework,
Filipino teachers should be able to see their strengths and ensure that such
strengths be consistently utilized in teaching practice. If weaknesses are
identified, teachers can plan for various professional topics. Professional
development is a formal in-service training to upgrade the content knowledge
skills of teachers. The teacher’s academic advancement and professional
upgrading activities contribute to an enjoyable and productive teaching.
Philippine Public School Teachers Association (PPSTA) takes an active role by
providing services for the professional development and financial security of
public educators in the Philippines.
Toleda (2000) stated that the teacher is the greatest factor in the
development of functional citizens in growing complex.According to Berador (2009),
he cited the role of teachers in education as not only to impart knowledge to
their students but also give them a chance to grow in age , knowledge , and wisdom.