An has also increased the frequency and severity

An Evaluation of Environmental Programs in Barangay Maybunga of Pasig City in Prevention of Floods caused by the Storm SurgeA Research StudyPresented to Miss Nicole AbaniaSan Beda College- RizalIn Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in Practical Research 1Aday, LaraAbella, Dale ArthurAlcantara, Joaquin PaoloLim, Shiroanne ErykaOrdanza, Brian EdselCHAPTER ITHE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUNDIntroduction         “The Philippines is one of the most vulnerable countries in the world to disaster and climate change. With over 7,000 islands and over 36,000 kilometers of coastline, nearly everyone – 74 percent of the population – and everywhere – 80 percent of the land area – are vulnerable to disaster, with the capital of Manila considered at “extreme risk.” Rising sea levels are a direct threat to approximately 70 percent of the 1,500 municipalities in the Philippines, many of which may need to relocate as a result. Climate change has also increased the frequency and severity of natural disasters.” (Give2Asia Organization, n.d.) The Philippines is one of the countries which are susceptible to tropical cyclones and disaster due to its geographical location that is located in the Pacific region near the Equator. Being well-known as a typhoon-stricken country, the Philippines has a long history of experiences in dealing with, responding to, and managing disasters brought by typhoon and storms causing landslides and flooding. The country has conducted several environmental programs in prevention of disasters brought by hazards. In 1987, the earliest notable recognition is done by the Philippine government as of importance sustainable development taking into consideration the environment. In which the constitution states “The State shall protect and advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature.” In 1991, the country initiated to address climate change issues as it trusts to achieve sustainable development. As the Philippine environmental development continues, it is by then committed to addressing global development was further manifested support to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) which was ratified on the year of 1994, and also support to Kyoto Protocol which was ratified on the year of 2003. (Philippine Commission on Women, 2009)         In 2002, a comprehensive disaster management framework was developed by the NDCC to serve as a guide of all DCCs in pursuing disaster management activities in the four phases of disaster management; Mitigation and Preparedness phases in the pre-disaster stage, and Response and Recovery and Rehabilitation phases in the post-disaster stage. (Palacio, 2007)         In 2005, President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo approved the implementation of the National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC) Four Point Plan of Action for Preparedness (4PPAP) which aimed to increase public awareness and involvement in measures put in place by the government to minimize the impact of disasters in the future. (NDRRM, 2011) Republic Act 10121 also known as “Philippine Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010” were legislated by former President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, prior to SNAP program. The Act enhances the disaster preparedness and capabilities of the national government and local government units by providing a National Disaster Risk Reduction Management System Framework, and by institutionalizing the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Plan. (Olan, 2014) Thus, despite this development of the Philippine government, when Bagyong Ondoy (also known as ‘Typhoon Ketsana’ – international name) ravaged the Philippines mostly in Luzon last September 2009, it brought a big evidence of problems to the state. It badly damaged the country, mostly the provinces, and submerging cities like Pasig City flood was as high as eight meters or eight hundred centimeters approximately.         When Pasig City was mostly haunted by the typhoon Ondoy during 2009, it submerged thousands of homes in the city, both poor and up scaled communities.Leaving Pasig City and its government incurred huge damages in infrastructures: buildings (P11,800,000,000-US$3B); Roads/drainages (P1,500,000,000-US$36B); Government buildings schools, health centers, playgrounds (P800,000,000 or US$ 20 B); Government vehicles, equipment and facilities (P14, 609, 791 or US$3.5M); not included were the many innocent people who died during the catastrophe (Porio, 2011).         The unpropitious disaster happened once again, when southwest monsoon, (popularly known as ‘Habagat’) brought another deadly flood in August 2012, submerging Metro Manila and other provinces. The amount of rainfall brought by Habagat has transcended the record of Typhoon Ondoy that induced the declaration of a state of calamity in Luzon. From the records of NDRRMC, a total of forty-nine (49) cities/municipalities in Region I, III, IV-A, IV-B, XII, and NCR was declared under a state of Calamity wherein the Pasig City were included. The total cost of damages of southwest monsoon for infrastructure is Php 639,128, 230.00 and for agriculture is Php1,624,410,815.14 or combined damages for infrastructure and agriculture amounting to Php. 2,263,539, 045.14 (NDRRMC, 2012).In the Local Government of Pasig, the affected places of southwest monsoon are twenty-four barangays (24), including Barangay Maybunga, seven thousand one hundred fifty (7,150) families or thirty-three thousand two hundred eighty (33,280) persons (NDRRMC, 2012)The data does not include other unreported statistics recorded from families and communities from each barangay of Pasig.Barangay Maybunga is part of the City of Pasig, in which the city is one of the highly urbanized cities in Metropolitan Manila and it is serves as a home to many informal settlements along the banks of the Manggahan Floodway. One of these is West Bank, Floodway, Manggahan (WFM), which has an estimated population of 23,000 or around 4,400 families.  In which the development of the businesses and industrialization is very rapid for it is accessible to conventional ares like Ortigas. This attracts people to move to the city for it opens a lot of employment opportunities along with the political stability of the locality.  With 755,300 population of Pasig City as of 2015, contributing 4.92%, the Barangay Maybunga is composed of 37,151 number of population. As a result, the city along with the barangays is highly industrialized leaving pollution and permanent structures like buildings and houses accommodating the progress of the city development. In the City of Pasig, the Barangay Maybunga can be found around the northeast boundary of the city within the intermediate core of Barangay Santa Lucia, Barangay Rosario, Barangay San Miguel, and Barangay Ugong (Fig.1.1). The Barangay Maybunga lies in between of Marikina River and human made Manggahan Floodway making it catch all the excess waters in the waterways, and prone to flooding. (Fig.1.2) Fig. 1.1- Barangays Ugong, Santa Lucia and San Miguel are next to Barangay Maybunga(in color red- indication of its vicinity)         Fig. 1.2- Marikina river is at the west part of Barangay Maybunga, and the humanmade Manggahan Floodway on the east The Manggahan floodway is created by the national government to catch water from the mountain due to diminished forests in Antipolo and Rizal province. Cited to PAGASA (2012) the capacity of river and the flow rate during Ondoy the Marikina River has a current capacity of 2,900m³/second and Manggahan Floodway with 2,400m³/second. The man-made Manggahan Floodway built in 1980’s cuts across the city, from the Marikina river bend in Barangay Rosario down to Laguna Bay. About 3 km. of Manggahan floodway traverse the city, in particular barangay Rosario, and Maybunga. The Manggahan floodway is part of Metro Manila flood control program that prevents flooding in Manila and its vicinity through diversion of about 70% of the water coming from Marikina River to flow towards the Laguna de Bay and only 30% to flow to the Pasig River. (Pasig City Profile, 2010)         The City of Pasig have been initializing different action programs addressing the issues of floodings in the locality. By developing waterways within the city and its barangays, the creeks in Barangay Maybunga such as Sapang Malalapit Creek that is connected to Mahabang Ilog Creek which is also in the vicinity of the barangay. Cited to Pasig City Government (2011) the rehabilitation of Sapang Malalapit creek includes the dredging of Creek and clearing of water lilies along the creek. This project directly serves the residents of Maybunga and nearby areas. Cleaning and Clearing of waterways especially creeks will benefit not only residents adjacent to creek but also perimeter of the areas connecting Mahabang Ilog Creek. This project is almost 77% accomplished.Furthermore, the rehabilitation of slope protection along Mahabang Ilog Creek in Barangay Maybunga, Pasig City is one of the three (3) major Flood Control projects funded by DPWH-NCR thru the First Metro Manila Engineering District (FMMED), aimed to mitigate if not totally eradicate the flooding woes of the low lying residential communities of Barangay Maybunga and the adjacent Barangays of Rosario and San Miguel. These three (3) Barangays of Pasig City were the most affected by flooding during the onslaught of Typhoon “Habagat” when the water overflows thru the damaged riprap slope protection of Mahabang Ilog Creek, submerging the said low lying communities into knee-deep flood water. With the rehabilitation of the damaged riprap sections of the creek and the clearing/desilting of its waterways, the flooding woes of the residents of the said low lying communities of the above-mentioned Barangays will be lessened especially during Rainy season. (DPWH, n.d.)         The City of Pasig has been initializing milestones toward environmental programs as a prevention rather than recovery. The government of the locality has proposed actions in every barangay that it covers. The protection of citizens along with the security of their homes and properties, during a disaster, must the utmost priority of the government. The researchers are very much interested in the evaluation of the proposed environmental programs in Pasig City, specifically in Barangay Maybunga. This study will serve as an awareness to the citizens in the Barangay Maybunga as well as to the barangay officials for them to formulate better environmental programs to reduce the vulnerability, the hazard towards risk, although the exposure of the people in hazards may be inevitable since the location of the barangay is in between of Marikina river and human-made Manggahan Floodway, along with the development of the capacity to disasters enabling them to recover; use and identify the available resources in the vicinity of the barangay that they can rely on. Furthermore, the acuity of the people about the environmental programs in prevention of floods in the area is also a measurement of their protection of rights are one of the main concerns of the researchers for this will be credential in saving and protecting their lives, securing their individual homes and properties, and conserving the natural (environmental) attributes of the barangay.Statement of the Problem Considering the flood conditions prevailing in barangay Maybunga of Pasig City, the researchers’ attempts to assess the environmental programs which have specifically attained the flooding issues and concerns in Pasig City.Specifically, the researchers sought to answer the following questions:1. How did these environmental programs impact the living status of the citizens  of barangay Maybunga, and in the flood risk areas of the barangay? 2. Why are these given environmental programs considered to lessen or prevent the flood risk in barangay Maybunga?3. How are these environmental programs beneficial to the community of barangay Maybunga? Significance of the Study The outcome of this study would be very much important to benefit and help the following groups of people: Significance of the Study         The outcome of this study would be very much important to benefit and help the following groups of people:         Citizens of Barangay Maybunga. This study may give the citizens of Barangay Maybunga a prior knowledge about the environmental programs in their barangays as prevention of flood risk due to storm surge. Since the study will be taking respondents mostly composed of the citizens, this may encourage them to be part of the barangay development towards flood prevention.         City Environment and Natural Resource Specialists. This study will be beneficial to the city environment and natural resource specialist of the City of Pasig for it would provide insights and recommendations that will help them better implement their proposed programs for the locality. Also, it would encourage them to review and evaluate the programs in the locality to further enhance and the program development in order to maximize the benefits and advantages it could provide.         Flood Control Specialists. This study aims to serve as a guide to flood control specialist of the City of Pasig for further improvement of waterways such as creeks and floodways, not only in the Barangay Maybunga but may also apply to other barangays within the city for better security and protection of the people, their homes, and properties. They could use the notion regarding the evaluation conducted to upgrade the flood control facilities in the vicinity.         Future Researchers. This study may be used as a reference to advance the study regarding the issue of flooding in the city; it can be a reference to conduct a study in other barangays in the city addressing the flood risk. By this, the future researchers may widen the topic taking note of the issues, outcomes, and recommendations in this study. And in doing so, support and help in achieving the goals of the environmental programs. Scope and LimitationsThis study will only run in the span of the second (2nd) semester of the school year 2017-2018. It is only limited to the citizens of Barangay Maybunga of Pasig City and government officials related to the study. The citizens of the barangay are the chosen respondents since they are the one who experiences the effect of protection and security of the programs that the officials mandate. In addition, the researchers will be also interviewing some officials in the vicinity for them to further have knowledge about the additional environmental programs that are about/ or has been implemented. In interviewing the officials, the researcher will broaden their knowledge about the differences of before and after the implementation of the said programs. The researchers will conduct the programs effective in the Barangay Maybunga, making it more specific and easier for the respondents to evaluate. Although the results that the researchers might get from the respondents may not be that reliable since not all of them have the same perspective towards the changes and improvement that the officials made. Definition of Terms To understand and clarify the terms used in the study, the following are hereby defined:Acuity – keenness of perception (https://www.merriam-webster.com/, December 2017)Capacity – the potential or suitability for holding, storing, or accommodating (https://www.merriam-webster.com/, December 2017)Coastline – The line that separates the land surface and the water surface of the sea or ocean. (http://www.websters-dictionary-online.net, December 2017)Creek – a natural stream of water normally smaller than and often tributary to a river. (http://www.websters-dictionary-online.net, December 2017)Cyclone – a storm or system of winds that rotates about a center of low atmospheric pressure, advances at a speed of 20 to 30 miles (about 30 to 50 kilometers) an hour, and often brings heavy rain. (http://www.websters-dictionary-online.net, December 2017)Disaster – a sudden calamitous event bringing great damage, loss, or destruction. (http://www.websters-dictionary-online.net, December 2017)Disruption – An act of delaying or interrupting the continuity. (http://alpha.totodefinition.com/credits/wordnet.html#, December 2017)Exposure – Vulnerability to the elements; to the action of heat or cold or wind or rain. (http://alpha.totodefinition.com/credits/wordnet.html#, December 2017)Flood – A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry.  Floods can also occur in rivers when the flow rate exceeds the capacity of the river channel, particularly at bends or meanders in the waterway. (https://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Flood, December 2017)Floodway – The channel of a river or other watercourse and the adjacent land areas that must be reserved in order to discharge the “base flood” without cumulatively increasing the water surface elevation more than one foot. (http://alpha.totodefinition.com, December 2017)Hazard – A threatening event, or the probability of occurence of a potentially damaging phenomenon within a given time period and area (http://www.em-dat.net/, December 2017)Inevitable – incapable of being avoided or evaded. (https://www.merriam-webster.com/, December 2017)Risk –  A source of danger; a possibility of incurring loss or misfortune. (http://www.websters-dictionary-online.net/, December 2017)Socioeconomic – of, relating to, or involving a combination of social and economic factors. (https://www.merriam-webster.com/, December 2017)Storm surge – is an abnormal rise of the ocean generated by a weather disturbance such as a tropical cyclone over and above the predicted high tide mark.(David,2013) (http://center.noah.up.edu.ph/storm-surge-101-what-they-are-and-how-to-prepare-for-them-gmanews/, December 2017)Typhoon – a hurricane occurring especially in the region of the Philippines or the China sea.  (https://www.merriam-webster.com/, December 2017)Unpropitious – not likely to have or produce a good result ((https://www.merriam-webster.com/, December 2017)Vulnerable – Susceptible to physical harm or damage (https://www.thefreedictionary.com/, December 2017)Vulnerability – the quality or state of being exposed to the possibility of being attacked or harmed, either physically or emotionally. (https://en.oxforddictionaries.com, December 2017)Waterways – a way or channel for water. (https://www.merriam-webster.com/, December 2017)CHAPTER IIREVIEW OF RELATED LITERATUREFlood Abstract & Situation in Pasig City The cities and municipalities along Pasig City have been experiencing the perennial problem of flooding which is prone to storm surges during typhoons due to its three surrounding major waterways – Pasig River, Marikina River, and the Manggahan floodway – and the Laguna de Bay. The Marikina River runs along the eastern boundary and joins the Pasig River in the middle part before turning west towards Manila Bay. The Manggahan floodway, which is connected to the Marikina River, can convey floodwaters for temporary storage in Laguna de Bay. The Napindan Channel is a small river that connects Laguna de Bay to the Pasig River and can convey water from Manila Bay to Laguna de Bay during high tide. This article revisits the flooding problem in Pasig City which mainly focused in Barangay Maybunga and attempts to set a new standard and living conditions to tackle the issues regarding the environment programs that are effective in formulating long-term solutions in each of the barangays in Pasig City.Following a thorough study, books and thesis papers are used as a tool for studying the flooding situation of Pasig City and for studying the present topic which is “An Evaluation of Environmental Programs in Barangay Maybunga of Pasig City in Prevention of Floods caused by the Storm Surge.” In the thesis paper “Flood Disaster Risk Reduction and Risk Management of Pasig City” by Robas, the geographical situation and rapid urbanization of the city can lead to limited commercial consumptions which results to convert waterways in utilizing for industrial, business or houses occupation.  In this matter, the analysis of the flood situation in the Pasig City shown that the Flood Disaster Risk Management- Disaster Risk Reduction (DRM-DRR) programs can be effective in alleviating the recovery and rehabilitation of flood-prone areas specifically, the nineteen (19) barangays that are severely affected by the typhoon Habagat and typhoon Ondoy. Mr. Robas highlights the importance of mitigation and prevention, emergency preparedness and risk reduction, and emergency response of the barangays that are insufficient in regulation the physical needs of the families and individuals. This thesis paper is concerned to diminish and improve the flood-control mitigation measures of Pasig city. Also, if there are certain actions needed to identify the rapid development through a comprehensive vulnerability assessment to reduce risk. Related Studies Liongson, Tabios III, and Castro, “Pressures of Urbanization: Flood Control and Drainage in Metro Manila”. This study aimed to acknowledge the issue of flooding in Metro Manila which leads to a large issue of population and poverty, would inevitably result into the problem of squatting in Metro Manila which continues to become an issue due to poverty and urbanization.    This study presents the possible factors that lead to flooding and provides relevant information needed relating to the structural and non-structural measures of the various flood-control mitigation measures in Metro Manila cities including Pasig city. The authors wanted to show that part of the problem lies in people’s perceptions of flooding and to encourage greater coordination among the concerned agencies or organizations in their activities.Roy Badilla, “Flood Modelling In Pasig-Marikina River Basin”, The study determine the operation of flood control structures in Manggahan Floodway(Rosario Weir) and in Napindan Channel (Napindan HCS) for the EFCOS’ flood control activities that can be used as a basis in the development of the flood model. This research tackles about the non-structural measures such as hydrologic/hydraulic models used as a method in mitigating flood damages in which is primarily intended to keep the people away from flood and reduces the chances of flooding into society and economy. It highlights the use of flood modeling in Pasig-Marikina River which has remote sensing and geographic information system.  This kind of study is also tool to help in addressing the problem of flooding in Pasig City with its detailed information relating to materials and methods used in the study and including the description of the study area, river systems and other systems, topography, weather and climate and warning systems in the area.