Assignment No:2 Biochemistry 202 Student ID :mc170404263Student Name :Kinza Amjad S. Program :Msc zoology 1st semester Topic :1. Structural difference between steroids and cholesterol 2. Differentiate between Bile acids and Bile salts Question No:1 Describe the structural difference between steroids and cholesterol? Solution :1. Steroids? Definition : “Any substance containing Cyclo-pentano-per-hydro-phenantharen ring is called steroid. ” OR”A steroid is an organic with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration” OR”A steroid is a lipid whose structure is based on the tetracyclic structure.”? Forms of Steroid : Sterol or steroid alcohol are special forms steroids.These are steroids containing one or more -OH group. ? Forms of Sterol : There are hundreds of forms of Sterol but a few of them are discussed below as:• Sterols and stanols from plants are called phytosterol.• Sterol from animals are called zoosterol.Examples :Cholesterol , ergosterol, lithosterol, lanosterol etcThus cholesterol is a kind of steroid. 2. . Cholesterol ? Definition :”Cholesterol is the major Sterol in animal tissues. Cholesterol is an amphipathic lipid. ” OR”Cholesterol is defined as a waxy alcohol ,fat like substance that occurs naturally in all areas of human body”? Structural difference between steroids and cholesterol :Steroids structurally based on the tetracyclic structure consist of :• 3 cyclohexane ring• 1 cyclopentane ringAs: Steroids have 19-20 carbon atoms and produced from cholesterol through a series of reactions. In Sterol form, steroids are with 8 carbon atoms in side chain at C-17 and a hydroxyl group at C-3.Cholesterol has 27 carbon atoms. Cholesterol has the eight carbon branched attached with C-17 hydrocarbon chain at D ring. At the A ring is a hydroxyl group and at ring B is a double bond between C-5 and C-6.As:(hydrocarbon chain at C-17 of the D ring A has a hydroxyl group at C-3,double bond between C5 and C-6)Cholesterol is the Sterol produced in animals.It is major constituent of cell membrane and it allow the flow of material to move in and out of the cell. Cholesterol is most abundant steroid in our body and present only in animals and absent in plants. 140 gm of cholesterol may be present in a 70 kg adult I. e 2gm /kg body weight. High cholesterol foods include eggs,liver , fish, fast foods, butter, shellfish, shrimp, bacon, sausages , red meat., cheese, pastries. The daily value of cholesterol is 300mg. • Cauliflower cheese. 17(100g) • Eggs boiled. 450(55g)• Eggs fried. 480(60g)• Egg omelette. 410(100g) etcThe Sterol is (biochemistry) any member of a class of steroids having hydroxyl group at C-3 in ring present in the animals and plant tissues and play important role in hormone chemistry while the cholesterolis is synthesized by liver and transported to the bloodstream in the membranes of all cells of a animal. It plays a vital role in the biochemical processes and as a lipoproteins in walls of blood vessels ,is associated with the cardiovascular disease. Cholesterol doesn’t metabolize the CO2 and H2O in ring therefore humans cannot utilize the cholesterol for energy. Cholesterol is also extracted from the bile in human body. Question No :2 Differentiate between bile acids and bile duct?Solution 😕 Bile Acids 😕 Definition :”An acid made by liver that works with bile to break down fats.”OR”On the technical level, bile acids are the steroids carbolic acids derived from cholesterol. “? Bile Salts 😕 Definition :”Bile salts can be defined as, bile salts are the component of bile., a fluid secreted by gallbladder during the digestion of lipids.”Bile Acids:Bile acids are the steroids acids which found in the bile of mammals and other vertebrates Different types of bile acids are synthesized in liver by different species. Bile acids are conjugated with Taurine and glycine in liver and these conjugates are called bile salts. ? Synthesize of bile acids :There are two types of bile acids asPrimary bile acid Secondary bile Acid? Primary bile Acid (these are those bile acids which are synthesized by liver.these are cholic acids chenodeoxycholic acids. )? Secondary bile Acid(those which results from the bacterial action in colon) ? Diagram 😕 Differences between bile acids and bile salts :Bile acids Bile salts• Bile acids are critical for digestion and absorption in small intestine of fats and fat-soluble vitamins. Many waste products like bilirubin are eliminated from body into bile and eliminate into feces. • Any sodium salts of bile acids such as teurocholate and glycholate occur in bile and a mixture as commercial preparation drives in bile and used medically for hepatic stimulant or Laxative.• With the function of absorption of fatts and fat soluble as vitamins A, D, E and K. It also serves as the route for excretion of bilirubin as by product of red blood cells recycled by liver. • Bile salts are the strong surfacant. • Bile acids also caused disease. It’s synthetic defects are uncommon disorder that cause cholestatic liver disease that is occur in infancy or in early childhood. • Alterations of bile salts metabolism have numerous diseases. Liver damage results in elevation of bile salt concentration serum which is used for the hepaticcellular diseases. Changing in individual serum of bile Salt occur with cholestasis.Urinary excretion are rich in sulphates increase as the compensatory mechanism. • As the bile acids cause disorder in infancy or in early childhood thus the injury responsible for the GCT may be specific for toxic bile acids. The immaturity of bile acids may render but the normal infants venerable to transient. “neonatal hepatitis ” with the GCT are broad range cholestic disorder. • Bile acids binding agents, such as the cholestyramine are very helpful in the control of pruritus in patients with cholestasis.