Chapter The informal interviews and observation as well

Chapter 2

Design and Methodology

          This chapter included discussions of
the research design, locale and population, data gathering procedure, data
gathering tool, validity and reliability of the research instrument and the
statistical treatment to be used in the study.

Research Design

The descriptive method of research was
used in this study. The descriptive method involves the description, recording,
analysis, and interpretation of the present nature, composition or process of
phenomena. The focus is on prevailing conditions, or how a person, group, or
thing behaves or functions in the present. It often involves some type of
comparison or contrast (Shuttleworth, 2008). Hence this design was utilized in
this study for it aimed to assessedthe utilization of play-based approaches in the
public elementary schools of La Trinidad District, Schools Division of Benguet.

The researcher made use of a survey
questionnaire as the research tool, together with informal interviews and
observation. The informal interviews and observation as well as the
researcher’s experiences were used to clarify and reinforce the findings of
this study.

Population and Locale of the Study

The study was conducted in the 23public
elementary schools of La Trinidad District, Schools Division of Benguet during
the school year 2017-2018.Total enumeration was employed where all the 23school
heads and 38kindergarten teachers served as respondents of this study.

Table A

 

Distribution
of Respondents

 

Schools

School
Heads

Teachers

1.  
Alapang
Camp Dangwa Elementary School

1

1

2.  
AlnoKadore
Elementary School

1

1

3.  
Ambiong
Elementary School

1

2

4.  
Bahong
Elementary School

1

1

5.  
Balili
Elementary School

        1

2

6.  
Balukas
Elementary School

1

1

7.  
Bekkel
Elementary School

1

2

8.  
Benguet
SPED Center

1

1

9.  
Bineng
Elementary School

1

1

10. Bodiweng Elementary School

1

1

11.Buyagan Elementary School

1

4

12.La Trinidad Central School

1

5

13.Lamtang Elementary School

1

1

14.Lamut Elementary School

1

1

15.Longlong Elementary School

1

1

16.Lubas Elementary School

1

2

17.Pagal Elementary School

1

1

18.Pico Elementary School

1

1

19.Puguis Elementary School

1

4

20.Tacdian Elementary School

1

2

21.Talinggoroy Elementary School

1

1

22.Tawang Elementary School

1

1

23.Wangal Elementary School

1

1

TOTAL

23

38

Source: Division Planning Section 2017

Data Gathering Tool

          In gathering
the data needed in the study, the questionnaire was  the main instrument used. This was
supplemented by informal interviews, observations, participation, and library
techniques. In using these tools of gathering data, they were all focus on obtaining
answers to the specific problems of the study. These were used to clarify and
augment the data gathered through the questionnaire.A questionnaire is a form
prepared and distributed to secure responses to certain questions. A general
rule is that these questions are factual and intended to obtain information
about condition or practices of which the respondents are presumed to have
knowledge.

          The
first part of the questionnaire was a letter to the respondents followed by
queries on the following topics:(1) What are the different
types of play used in play-based approaches; (2) What are benefits of play-based
approaches to the learners; (3) What are barriers encountered in the effective
utilization of play-based approaches; and, (4) What are needed measures to
address the barriers encountered in the effective utilization of play-based
approaches.

Reliability
and Validity of the Research Instrument

          To establish the validity of the research instrument, the questionnaire constructed based from previous
researches and informal interviews related to the study was shown to
researcher’s adviser for comments and suggestions to further enhance the data
gathering tool

          On
the other hand, its reliability was determined through the use of the
Kuder-Richardson Formula 21 (Subong, 2006) after a pretest to 5 school heads
and 5kindergarten teachers who were not part of the actual number of
respondents. It yielded as index score of 0.95 which indicates that the
questionnaire is very highly reliable.

rk-R  =          Ns² – m (N-m)

                          s² (N-1)

Where:

N = number of respondents

m = mean

s² = variance

1 = constant

 

 

Data Gathering Procedure

          Before floating the questionnaire,
letter of request to administer questionnaire was secured from the Dean of the
Graduate School. Afterwards, permission was obtained from the Schools Division
Superintendent of the participating schools. The researcher personally
distributed the questionnaire to the target respondents. The researcher had to
personally administer the questionnaire in order to explain to the respondents
the proper accomplishment of the questionnaire. It was during the distribution
and retrieval of the questionnaire that some interviews were conducted.

Statistical
Treatment of the Data

          The data gathered
in the study were tallied, classified, tabulated and subjected to the weighted
mean and ranking.

          ?
f

          WM =      

n

 

Where:

                             WM
= Weighted mean                       

?  = summation

                              f   =
frequency

                             n  = total number of cases

 

The responses were treated with a
three-point scale with their respective statistical limit and descriptive
equivalents.

1.  
Types of
play used in play-based approaches      

NUMERICAL
VALUE

STATISTICAL

LIMITS

DESCRIPTIVE
EQUIVALENT

SYMBOL

3

2.35
– 3.00

Effective

E

2

1.68
– 2.34

Not
Effective

NE

1

1.00
– 1.67

Undecided

U

 

2.  
Benefits
of play-based approaches to the learners

NUMERICAL
VALUE

STATISTICAL
LIMITS

DESCRIPTIVE
EQUIVALENT

SYMBOL

3

2.35
– 3.00

Highly
Beneficial

HB

2

1.68
– 2.34

Moderately
Beneficial

MB

1

1.00
– 1.67

Least
Beneficial

LB

 

3.  
Barriers
encountered in the effective utilization of play-based approaches

NUMERICAL
VALUE

STATISTICAL
LIMITS

DESCRIPTIVE
EQUIVALENT

SYMBOL

3

2.35
– 3.00

Very
Serious

VS

2

1.68
– 2.34

Moderately
Serious

MS

1

1.00
– 1.67

Least
Serious

LS

 

4.  
Measures
to address the barriers encountered in the effective utilization of play-based
approaches

NUMERICAL
VALUE

STATISTICAL
LIMITS

DESCRIPTIVE
EQUIVALENT

SYMBOL

3

2.35
– 3.00

Highly
Needed

HN

2

1.68
– 2.34

Moderately
Needed

MN

1

1.00
– 1.67

Least    Needed

LN

 

In conclusion, for the difference of
responses among the school heads and kindergarten teachers, independent sample
t-test (Subong, 2006) was applied with the formula of:

 

X?  –  X2      

t
=        

 ?X?² + ?X2²   
1  + 1

n1
+ n2 – 2 n1n2

 

Where:

 

X?    = mean responses of the first group

X2    
=mean responses of the second group

?X?  =summation of the processed responses of the

first
group

?X2 
=summation of the processed responses
of the

second
group

?X?²=
summation of the squares of the processed responses

          of the first
group

?X2²=summation
f the squares of the processed responses

          of the
second group

n1=
number of respondents of the first group

n2=
number of respondents of the second group