artery disease (CAD) is the impedance or blockage of one or more arteries that
supply blood to the heart usually due to atherosclerosis (hardening of the
arteries). The overall prevalence of coronary artery disease among adults based
on the clinical and ECG criteria was estimated as 9.7% and 2.7% in the urban and rural populations, respectively
12. Among various risk factors associated with CAD, qualitative and
quantitative aspects of meal consumption can have significant implications on
prevention and prognosis of CAD patients.
and calorie distribution has a significant effect on incidence of CAD. Studies
show that the incidence of CAD is much higher in people following western diet
then those following Mediterranean diet, hence food frequency and calorie
distribution becomes an important aspect in assessment of CAD 3.
This study therefore would be conducted in a case control group and differences
in food frequency and calorie distribution will be observed.
stated in the article published by the American heart institute, circadian
rhythm is governed by the perception of light and the peripheral clocks of the
body are governed by food intake 4. Any disturbance between the
coordination of circadian rhythm and peripheral clocks could lead to increased
risk of CAD. Such disturbances can be created by alterations in meal patterns
such as breakfast skipping and intermittent fasting 4.
time interval between meal and sleep (defined as reclining time for the purpose
of this study) and nocturnal eating has significant correlation with digestion
of food. Similarly, studies in healthy adults have shown that meal
satiety also varies with time of day and that food intake during the night is
less satiating and leads to greater daily caloric intake compared to morning
hours 5. For example, it has been shown that night shift workers
tend to have a higher prevalence of overweightness, abdominal obesity, elevated
triglycerides, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and decreased kidney
function compared to day workers 5.
A study has shown that the reduction in intake
of saturated fatty acid does not significantly decrease the incidence of coronary
artery disease 6. In contrast when the reduction in intake of saturated fatty
acid is replaced by poly unsaturated fatty acid a significant decrease in risk
of coronary artery disease was observed 6.
a case control study on food frequency, meal pattern, time interval between
meal and sleep, nocturnal eating and saturated and poly unsaturated fatty acid
intake in coronary artery disease patients in tertiary care teaching hospitals