For my research, I
collected visual purpose sampling. I collected visual purposive samples of 22
music videos which featured black women. “…The visual is central to the
cultural construction of social life in contemporary western societies”
(Gillian Rose 2001: p17). Visual purposive sampling was the most appropriate to
my research as images provide a unique view to the world.
My videos were
taken from three music sharing platforms; YouTube, MTV and BET (Black
Entertainment Television). I believe these would be the platforms that would
support my research the most as they are the most popular platforms which
present RnB and Hip-Hop Music videos.
The analysis of my
22 music videos was broken down into two stages; First, I coded the video
samples, and secondly, I completed the data gathering process of a textual
After selecting a
sample of my 22 music videos which I would be anaylsing, I then chose different
categories for coding my images. These categories were created to categorise
themes and patterns within the 22 music videos. During the coding process, it
is was important to keep my categories “apparently objective” (Slater 1998:
236). As Rose notes (2001: 71) there 3 characteristic when coding images which
I aimed to follow in other to successfully code my images.
Firstly, they must
be exhaustive; this means that every
video must be “covered” by one category
categories must be exclusive; therefore, meaning they must not be an overlap
within the videos and lastly the categories must be enlightening the videos
must be “a breakdown of imagery that will be analytically interesting and
coherent” (Slater 1998: 236).
During the stage of
content analysis, I chose to code my images in the following categories; Did
the videos feature black women (rappers, models, video vixens, singers and any
other type of performers including background dancers); Did the performers
identify themselves to be of black ethnicity; the relationship between these
performers and male characters in the video, occurrence of dance from the
female performer, appearance of female sexual desire.
were frequently occurred amongst majority (if not all) of the music videos, I
identified these categories as having key issues and themes in relation to my
research question. When coding my videos, I aimed to make them “completely
unambiguous” (Rose 2001: 73). Rose argued that all coding categories must be
“replicable”, she notes that “two different coders using the same codes produce
the same results from the same set of images”.
As part of my two
stages of visual analysis, I conducted a textual analysis of my music videos
critically exploring the lyrics. This is to identify whether there is a
relation between the lyrics of these videos and the representation of black women
within music videos. When carrying out
my textual analyses I looked for 4 different …. Within the lyrics; first how do
the male artist assert their dominance towards women through lyrics; secondly
are women referred to through offensive terms (bitch, hoe, baby mama etc);
thirdly how do women performers (rappers, singers) discuss the opposite gender
and lastly, how often do the lyrics sexualise female body.