INTRODUCTION is the leading cause of dental caries

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

 Diverse commensal microorganisms exist in the
human oral cavity. Various types of bacteria caused oral cavity infections (Kuliket al., 2008).These bacteria is the
leading cause of dental caries and plaque (Marsh, 2006).Numerous studies have
been undertaken to determine the composition of the plaque microflora from
diseased sites in order to try and identify those species directly implicated
in causing pathology (Soet et al., 2000).Microbes in biofilms like plaque are in
close to physical touch, and this can augment the chance of interactions, some
of which can adapt the pathogenic prospective of carcinogenic bacteria (Becker
et al., 2002).

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Dental plaque is the biofilm found naturally on
teeth and it is the etiologic agent in dental caries and periodontal diseases. A
better understanding of bacterial communities found in biofilm provides
opportunities for new methods to control biofilm formation. Therefore, control
the dental plaque is a major objective of dental professionals and critical to
the maintenance of optimal oral health (Ibrahim et al ., 2015).

Medical researchers have revealed that caries is related
with increase in the proportions of aciidogenic and aciduricbecteria,
especially lactobacilli and mutans streptococci (such as S. mutans and
S.sobrinus),Which are able to demineralizing enamel well as new parts of the
body (brain abscesses, cellulitis,endocarditis,meningitis,and the proper use of
appropriate antibiotics is an effective means of control.it is duty of dentist
tobrushing, drugs uptake, oral health and dental problems and other data of
each patient to be noted (kulkarni et al.,1989).

Several factors, such as adherence to
enamel surfaces, production of acidic metabolites, the capacity to build up
glycogen reserves and the ability to synthesize extracellular polysaccharides
are present in dental caries (loesche et al 1986).

 S.
mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus have a central role in the etiology
of dental caries (Marsh 2003) because these can adhere to the enamel salivary
pellicle and to other plaque bacteria (Lamonat et al 1991).

 

 

 

Lactobacilli are dominant part of the
oral flora, considered as pioneer microbes in the development of caries particularly
in dentin (Skovsted et al 2007) It inhabits the deep cavities, and their number
correlates with the quantity of carbohydrates (Dinesh et al 2016)

Number of sugars and glycosides such as
glucose, fructose, sucrose, lactose, galactose, mannose, cellobiose,
glucosides, trehalose, maltose and group of sugar alcohols are metabolized by
the bacterial action of S. mutans. S. mutans synthesizes intracellular glycogen
like polysaccharides in the presence of extracellular glucose and sucrose
(islam et al 2007) (yadav 2016)

 

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important Gram-negative
opportunistic pathogen, is the primary cause of hot tub folliculitis, otitis
externa dental caries, as well as the principal cause of morbidity and
mortality in cystic fibrosis patients (Bodey et al 2008). P. aeruginosa is
highly ubiquitous in water systems, and has intrinsic antimicrobial resistance
due to low outer membrane permeability, as well as an extensive efflux pump
system (kato et al 2008) (lister et al 2009)

S. aureus carriers with detectable levels in
dental plaque and saliva may play an important role as sources of HAIs in
dental healthcare settings. Indeed, S. aureus is detected in saliva of patients who
harbour these microorganisms in their oro-pharynx (Millar et
al., 2001),

A wide array of penicillins and other ?-lactams
antibiotics have been synthesized by incorporating various side chains into the
?-lactam ring. Of all ?- lactams antibiotics, penicillins are the most widely
used antimicrobial agents in dentistry. The narrow-spectrum
penicillinase-sensitive agents, such as penicillin G and penicillin V, and the
broad-spectrum aminopenicillins, for example, ampicillin and amoxicillin, are
of primary interest to dental practitioners. Penicillin V,
phenoxymethylpenicillin, is orally administered and it is active against
streptococci and most oral anaerobes

Plants have been used since the dawn of civilization
by human beings for readymade food, medicines for various ailments,
fodder/forage for cattle, burning, flower for celebration, services to earn,
honey collection, making agriculture tools, timber for constructions and many
more useful items (Ahmad et al., 2006). Indigenous uses of plants are many and
varied, playing an integral role in the realm of human health and forming the
economic basis of peoples of remote areas. 80% of the world population uses
plants for their primary health care, as plants are easy approachable and have
fewer side effects than pharmaceuticals. Ethno botanical knowledge
characterization traditional knowledge to establish priorities in the local
communities and establish an interaction of man and plants for sustainable
development (Barkatullah et al., 2011)

Plants being the primary producers have the capacity
to photosynthesize and transfer gasses, minerals and water to other living
things.In addition to food plants also supply human being with fiber,
landscape, dyes, building material, cosmetics, medicines, etc, Plants play a
significant role in our lives because they help in recycling of functional
nutrients, provides us the herbal medicines that have relatively few special
effects (Khan et al,. 2011).Ethno botanical search on indigenous plants is
continuing at rapid pace for treatment of AIDS,cancer and infrmmation (Play .,
2000).

                                     

For a long period of time, plants have been a
valuable source of natural products for maintaining human health, especially in
the last decade, with more intensive studies for natural therapies. Now days,
the use of phytochemicals for pharmaceutical purpose has gradually increased in
many countries. According to World Health Organization (WHO) medicinal plants
would be the best source to obtain a variety of drugs. About 80% of individuals
from developed countries use traditional medicine, which has compounds derived
from medicinal plants. (Ellof.  1998)

Pakistan
occupies a unique position among developing countries due to widespread
medicinal

Plants
on account of its topology. It is noticeable that more than 50% of the
population in Pakistan is still being treated with the herbal medicines by the
traditional practitioners and over 350 herbal drugs have been reported.
Pakistan flora is rich in variety of rare plants and offers a great chance to
discover a lead molecule that is a step forward towards the pharmaceutical
drugs(Gibbons et al 1995)