Ruskin, cognitive, emotional and social objective. All over

Ruskin, (2004) describe physical education
as one type of education that teach the function of physical and motor
objective as well as cognitive, emotional and social objective. All over the
years, people keep develop the physical education as well as people abilities
such as strength, and fitness. This thing develops in many field of physical
education such as individual level (a person ability, strength and fitness).
Besides that, it also develops in the organization level (such as school and
army). Many research from different fields, representing many approach. They
claimed that physical activity had proven to be significant factor in shaping
the world of individual, group and communities. By time goes by, people keep on
discovering the important inside the physical activity and they had confirmed
that, physical activity is very necessary to be a part of daily routine in
life. In medical and health aspect, physical activity can give health benefit
such as prevention of heart disease and blood clots (Harvard School of Public
Health, 2007; Ross, 1995). Besides that, it also gives a good impact in
individual motor abilities (Lidor,2004. Other study has highlighted the
psychological benefits of physical activity, such as the ability to sustain
pressure to cope with anxiety, and increasing self-confidence (Netz, 2008).

 

                        According
to (Lidor, 2004) physical activity generally refers to movement or action that
boost and enhance people health. Exercise is a part of physical activity that
should be planned and structured for example, lifting weights, taking an
aerobics class and running. Physical activity is good for many parts of the
body.

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2.3                   Involvement in physical activity
(running activity)

                       

                        Lee,
T. H., & Shen, Y. L. (2013) defined involvement as an unobservable state of
motivation, arousal or interest towards a physical activity or associated
product. It was evoked by a particular stimulus or situation and had driven
properties. In short, involvement referred to how we think about our physical
activity, and it is the effect on our behaviour as well. Running is one of the
best exercise that people do to maintain their health nowadays. In other study
showed that those who are practice running on daily life will had a 3.2 years
longer life expectancy, compared with those who are not running. (Kim,2011). It
is assumed that the ancestor of mankind creates the ability to run for long
distances about 2.6 million years ago, probably in order to hunt animals. By
time passed by, this running activity are evolved and develop, people make
running as a part of competitive religious festivals in various areas. (Kim,
2011). But, nowadays, running activities become more developed, people used
jogging and running to maintain their fitness as well as their health during
their free time or become part of their life to be a professional athlete. In
order to promote healthy lifestyle, some organizer organize running event and
put a valuable prize to encourage people participate in the activities. Yeoman,
I., Robertson, M., Ali-Knight, J., Drummond, S., & McMahon-Beattie, (2012).
There are many type of running activity that people involve. One of the most
popular type of the running races are the sprints or the races with a short
running distance such as 100m ,200 meter and 400-meter race. Besides that,
there is also middle distance running race such as 800 meter and last category
of running is long distance running. Long distance races have several
disciplines and those are the 3,000-meter race, the 5,000-meter race and the
10,000-meter race. One of the similarities that long distance races have with
the middle distance races is that strength is not that important factor. More
important are endurance and the tactics. Marathon can also be included in this
type of races. The official distance of the marathon is 42.195 kilometres or
26.219 miles and it is often considered to be the most difficult running races.
In this study the researcher only focus on long distance running activity.

                        According
to (James H O’Keefe, Peter Schnohr, Carl J Lavie, 2013) They found that long
distance running, as compared with the non-Runnings, had a remarkable 44% lower
risk of mortality during follow-up for both men and women. The age-adjusted
increase in survival was about 6?years in both genders. The trends of running
activity or joining running event were changing in develop countries as people
try to participate for the sake of their healthiness and leisure. People that
have income below than RM1000 are the highest participants in running events as
the fee are affordable by everyone, Estabrooks, P. A., Lee, R. E., &
Gyurcsik, N. C. (2003). Nowadays, with the use of the internet, people can
easily access and know where are the place that organize the running event.
Nowadays the running activity become the must activity by the most of Malaysia
citizen (Mahmood, 2011).  

                        In
addition, researcher found that, running activity become more supportive as it
comes to fundraising challenge. In a series of five experiments, Christopher
Olivola of Carnegia Mellon University discovered that people are attracted to
contribute more when the experience is painful and labour-intensive. Fogelholm,
M. (2010). The idea of suffering for a cause they care about can help make
their support more meaningful. This is why running activities, such as 5000
meters run, have consistently drawn in participants, Olivola, C. Y., & Shafir, E. (2013).

 

 

2.4 
                 MOTIVATIONS TO PARTICIPATE IN
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY

 

                        According
to Whaley and Schrider (2005), how people assume themselves based on past experiences
and current situations will definitely influence their physical activity
choices. Every year, the participant in running activity increase dramatically,
it is almost 100,000 participants in 2010 from previous year (Running
USA,2011). Mostly, the research about the marathon were using quantitative
method to examine motivation and satisfaction of the marathon event. Some
previous research had reveal that, people mostly involved in running activity
because of personal accomplishment, health and fitness, social influence, and
stress relief (Filo, Funk, & O’Brein, 2011; Scott and Solomon 2003; Ogles
& masters, 2000). In another study, there are participants younger than 20
years old were more likely to be motivated by health pressure and ill-health
avoidance, whereas those 20 years old and greater were more likely to be
motivated by affiliation, (Ingledew& Sullivan,2012).

 

2.5                   MOTIVATION
FOR PARTICIPATION AMONG GENDER

                        According
to (Ingledew & Sullivan, 2012), sex differences motivation for
participating running activity showed that, they had women were more tendency
towards weight management, while man was more tendency towards challenge and
appearance aspects. (Johns Gard, 2012) were doing the surveyed and found that
65% men and 48% woman all over the world involved in marathon because of
physical fitness, mood control, and self-concept. In other study, Giles-Corti, B., & Donovan, R. J.
(2002) perceptions of social and physical environmental supports were
positively associated with physical activity and walking behaviour, especially
at the neighbourhood level. Increasing awareness of environmental supports,
social comparison, and safety issues as well as of the importance of using
opportunities for physical activity at the neighbourhood level may be an
effective strategy for future community-based interventions. According to (Ingledew
& Sullivan, 2012) investigated sex differences in motivation participating
in marathon event in the adult population, revealing women were found to be
more motivated by weight management, whereas men were motivated by the
challenge and appearance aspects. (Johns Gard, 2012) surveyed 65% men and 48%
woman all over the world   do marathon
because physical fitness, mood control, and self-concept. But there is
different perspective by Kesterson, K. (2013). Based on research study by
Giles-Corti, B., & Donovan, R. J. (2002), perceptions of social and
physical environmental supports were positively associated with physical
activity. Compared to previous study by Ewert, Gilbertson, Luo and Voight (2013)
said, compared to males, females reported higher in social motives.

                        Beggs
et al. (2004) women were likely to participate in intramural sports for
intellectual satisfaction. This is because the female is more likely to take
opportunities to socialize, being entertained and feeling comfortable with
their friend and families during the program. In other study, by Gathright et
al . (2007) males were more likely to come alone or in groups compared to
females. The results are consistent with previous study reported, female
athletes and practitioners being most motivated by social factor (Pacheco, Soto
Mas, Olivarez& Avilia, 2012). previous research as discussed by Forrester
(1997), he concluded that students were much more motivated by
competency/mastery and social factors more so than intellectual or
stimulus/avoidance factors. Both genders agreed that they gained new knowledge
and ideas when they participated in this program.

 

 

2.6                   Maslow’s
hierarchy of needs

 

                        The
psychologist Abraham Maslow established a theory that proposes we, humans, are
motivated to satisfy five basic requirements. These requirements are organized
in a hierarchy. Maslow proposes that we look for satisfy the bottom level of necessity.
Once this is done, we look for satisfy each upper level of necessity until we
have satisfied all five requirements. While modern research shows some
shortcomings with this theory, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory remains an
important and simple motivation tool for managers to understand and apply.  The Hierarchy of Needs is as follows: Physiological
Needs (basic issues of survival such as salary and stable employment), Security
Needs (stable physical and emotional environment issues such as benefits,
pension, safe work environment, and fair work practices), “Belongingness” Needs
(social acceptance issues such as friendship or cooperation on the job),  Esteem Needs (positive self-image and respect
and recognition issues such as job titles, nice work spaces, and prestigious
job assignments.),  Self-Actualization
Needs (achievement issues such as workplace autonomy, challenging work, and
subject matter expert status on the job)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Although we, human is motivated to satisfy
this five basic needs, many of decision made by individual usually are
influence by intrinsic and extrinsic factor that affect the decision.
Self-determination theory is the example that briefly discuss about the real
things happen that encourage people to do everything including physical
activity.

 

 

 

 

 

2.7                   Self-Determination
Theory

 

                        One
theoretical framework that has been used over the past three decades in
research studies involving analyses of variability in sport and exercise
participation is self-determination theory (Deci, 1980; Deci & Ryan, 1985;
1987; 1991; Ryan & Deci, 2000). The current study used self-determination
theory for its conceptual foundation, because the focus of this investigation
was on examining the various relationships among gender, participation, and
experience on the motivation levels. Self-determination theory is a very
effective framework to consider different levels of motivation for activity
participation. Understanding the effective and complicated psychological
process of motivation is important to knowing human behaviour, especially in
sport and exercise settings (Roberts, 2001). A fundamental presumption of
self-determination theory is that individuals are more likely to want to
participate in sports and physical activities when individuals are acting out
of their own decision-making (Bryan & Solmon, 2007). When individuals are
self-determined to do something, rather than being forced to do it, individuals
will be more willing to participate, and will shift from lower degrees to
higher degrees of self-determination (Bryan & Solmon, 2007).

            Self-determination theory can help
evaluate each consequence of various forms of motivation in sport and exercise
settings. Wehmeyer, Baker, Blumber, and Harrison (2004) noted that
self-determination demonstrates the level to which a social context gives
chances for sport participants to make selections and utilize control over the
nature of their experiences. A primary focal point of self-determination theory
has been to conceptualize human motivation along a continuum, such as learning,
satisfaction, personal experience, and well-being (Deci & Ryan, 1985). Deci
and Ryan have also noted that some of the behavioral restrictions that vary in
levels of self-determination have been analysed. According to
self-determination theory, people have shared basic psychological needs, such
as competence, autonomy, and relatedness, that should be met in a physical
activity context (Deci & Ryan, 1991). Several studies (e.g., Hagger, Chatzisarantis,
& Harris, 2006; Vallerand, 1997) revealed that the need for autonomy has
been explained as an individual’s endeavour to decide his or her own direction,
and the need for competence has been expressed as an individual’s attempt to
experience consequence. In addition, the need for relatedness was described as
an individual’s desire to have satisfying and consistent involvement with
others. Overall, self-determination theory posits that there is three levels of
motivation (i.e., intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation)
which represent the differentiated types of self-determination. The most common
self-determination level is intrinsic motivation, and the least common
self-determination level is amotivation (Vallerand, 1997). Several studies have
investigated patterns of motivation, using the self-determination theory in the
field of physical activity research and sport context. Some of these studies
have examined participation in physical education and sport for youth
(Ntoumanis, 2001), physical activity (Wang & Biddle, 2001), and adult
participation in sport (Vlachopoulos, Karageorhgis, & Terry, 2000).
According to Thøgersen-Ntoumani and Ntoumanis (2006), intrinsic motivation to engage
in sport and exercise activities has been associated with a variety of
beneficial behaviors, in contrast to the concept of amotivation. Previous
research in physical activity and other contexts has demonstrated that
satisfied motivational results, such as behavioral persistence, task involvement,
enhanced psychological well-being and quality of life, are positively
associated with more self-governing regulations, and/or are negatively linked
to more self-restraint regulations (Reinboth, Duda, & Ntoumanis, 2004). A
number of scholars have studied exercise participation with intrinsic
regulations, and found that self-determination is positively related to future
intentions to exercise in young and adult participants in both exercise and
leisure contexts (Rose, Parfitt, & Williams, 2005) and physical education
contexts (e.g., Ntoumanis, 2005; Standage, Duda, & Ntoumanis, 2003). The
three basic psychological needs are very important for stimulating higher
levels of motivation, and the satisfaction of competence is especially crucial
in explaining higher levels of motivation.