Significance applicable to the concept of how gadgets

of the Study

            This study will benefit different
groups of people in the society.

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First, the students, this study will
help them become wiser in dealing with information. They will have idea to
where they should access news that guarantee a credible and truthful one.

Second, the people in the society,
this study will help them be equipped in handling the information they received
so that they won’t be easily fooled by false information. Also, they will be
given an awareness that there is such misleading news that spread that could
brought negative effects to them.

Third, community leaders, this
study will make leaders realized that before they believe the information that
reached them, they should confirm it first, if not, it may lead to confusion
and disorganization in the community.  

Fourth, the school administrators
and teaching force, this study will motivate them to enhance and strengthen Media
and Information Literacy Class in order for students to be fully responsible in
getting accurate information.

Lastly, journalist and news media
institutions, this study will empower them to work harder in serving the masses
with accurate, true, and credible information, knowing that social media that
provides false news starts to overcome their power.

and Delimitation

            This study focused on recognizing
the Physics behind the most common used gadget as source of news, determining
its relevance to fake news, and finding out if there is the same effect of fake
news in two different locations (areas away from nearby town and areas away
from town area) and as a whole. The respondents were randomly selected
residents of Janiuay, Iloilo who access news either through radio, television,
or digital devices. The questionnaire used is a researcher’s made questionnaire
that only limits to personal and factual questions that relates to the
respondents’ access to news and familiarity to fake news.

of Terms

Physics- the study of
matter, energy, and the interaction between them. (, 2012)

            In this study, it referred to laws
applicable to the concept of how gadgets works in providing            information.

 an often small mechanical or electronic device with a
practical use but often thought of      as
a novelty. (Merriam-Webster, 2017)

            In this study, it referred to radio,
television, and wireless devices that connect to the Internet                         like phones, personal
computers, tablets, etc. that are used to access news.

newly received or noteworthy information,
especially about recent events. (English               Oxford
Living Dictionaries, 2017)

            In this study, it referred to record
of events or happenings in the society.

the quality or state of being closely connected
or appropriate. (English Oxford Living                 Dictionaries, 2017)

            In this study, it referred to the
influence of Physics behind gadgets to the rise of fake                        news.

news- false, often sensational,
information disseminated under
the guise of
news reporting. (Collins    English Dictionary, 2017)

             In this study, it referred to news stories
that ware identified to be untrue and not       credible.



Chapter 2

of Related Literature


Chapter 2 contains concepts,
ideas, researches, and readings about the current study. It is composed of six
parts. (1) The concept of news, (2) Different sources of news information, (3)
Common gadgets used as source of news, (4) Physics on how gadgets work in
communicating news, and (5) The concept of fake news.

The Concept of News

beings were born information natives. They always seek for information about
the happenings around them. Everyday they encounter news either from
neighborhood, television, radio, newspaper, the Internet, and etc. one of the
variables of this study is news information, the reason why understanding the
concept of news is much important.

            According to Farooq (2015), news is
a record of any event, happening, or anything that concerns about the people in
the community. Its goal is to give information, educate, interest people, and
give them idea what to think and how to act in the society.

            In Merriam- Webster (2017), news is
defined as a report of recent events. It is also a record of events published
in a newspaper, periodical, or newscast.

            On the other hand, an American
journalist, Charles Anderson Dana, defined news as, “When a dog bites a man
that is not news, but when a man bites a dog that is news.” These quoted lines
imply that for Dana, news says something about extraordinary events only that
draws the attention of the people in the society.

            However, another American
journalist, Kurt Loder, defined news in a different perspective. For him,
“Well, news is anything that’s interesting, that relates to what’s happening in
the world, what’s happening in areas of the culture that would be interested to
your audience.” He meant what the news is made up of, it is composed of things
that interest and relates people to what is happening in the world and culture.
(The News Manual, 2008)

            Mass Communication Talk (2011),
suggested qualifications of an event to be considered as a news. First, it
should be timely or fresh, an event should be written and published within 24
hours to catch the attention of the readers. News is like a perishable product,
no wants it if it is already outdated. Second, it has the value of proximity or
nearness. The news’ importance does not solely depend on its geographic
proximity but also the its nearness to peoples’ interest. A terrorism attack on
France will be less important compared to the rebellion that happened in
Marawi, if the reader resides in the Philippines. Third, prominence, the bigger
the person or subject in the news, the greater the value it has. News stories
about politicians, celebrities, athletes, and etc. always draws more attention
of the readers. Fourth, magnitude, it refers to the impact of the news, the
level of worseness or greatness of the news also require different amount of
value it has. Fifth, conflict, this refer to the issue discussed on the news
story, if the conflict is about war, rebellion, conflict between the
government, people, and church, and etc. can make it to the news. Lastly,
unusualness, it refers to the uniqueness of the news that has greater value in
catching the attention of the people.

Different sources
of news information

As news is happening every single
second, not all people can witness every event that happened. However, there would
always be witness to these events, they are the sources of news.  The News Manual (2008), defined source as
someone or something that give people the information about the event that
happened. The manual stated that a person, a written material, and audio-visual
material can be sources of news. There are different types of sources, the
primary and the secondary sources. Primary sources are the person who basically
witnessed the event that happened, the police men who investigated on the
event, and anyone or anything who had the firsthand information about the
event. The secondary sources contain the processed information from primary
sources. Examples of these are the newspapers companies, police reports, a
person who have heard the event from someone, social media posts, blog posts,
reporters or news anchors, and etc.

            Nowadays, in the Philippine setting,
among these sources of news, there was one that bloomed gaining the trust of
many Filipinos over other mediums as source of news. Ballaran (2017), stated on
his news article that 87.3 percent of Filipinos trust social media as source of
news compared to 73.4 percent trust on traditional media like television and

This survey was done by
Philippine Trust Index (PTI), they have 1 200 Filipinos as respondents who have
accessed to news at least twice a week.

Common gadgets as
used as source of news

Mass media plays a vital role in
news. It is a conduit used to communicate news to the general public. The mass
media comes with different platforms in spreading information. Through the
years, it evolved and developed into something that is more accessible and
convenient to the consumers.

Evolution of Mass Media

The mass media started spreading
news to the public through print media like newspapers and magazines. This is
where journalists come in, they were considered to be the gatekeepers of news
media. They gather news, edit it through editorial processes and following
journalistic ethics then they will release it to the public.

Later on, comes the rise of
technologies and digital media were given birth. It is where news was already
broadcast through television and radio. In tv broadcast, audience now can watch
and observe with their eyes events happening around them. While, on radio, they
can already listen to the news without reading it.

Presently, we now live in a
digital world. We no longer rely on newspapers, tv and radio broadcasts
completely. News now comes with less effort, news now is just on the tip of our
fingers that is due to the reign of the Internet. Gadgets like phones, laptops,
tablets and other wireless gadgets that can connect to the Internet were now
part of the lists of the sources of news information. (CliffNotes, 2016)

            Meanwhile, European Federation of
Journalists (2017), released a news article discussing social media used as a
source of news is drastically growing. Due to the Internet, people now have
access to social media which can be made through gadgets like phones, personal
computers, tablets, and etc. based on 2016 report on digital news, 51 percent
of people in the world use social media as source of news. Facebook, with 44
percent was determined to be the most valued network for news information. The
said survey was conducted in 26 countries across the globe.

Physics on how
gadgets work in communicating news

            Basing on the evolution of mass
media, common gadgets as source of news are traditional media which includes
radio and television and the new media gadgets which are phones, personal
computers, tablets, and etc. however, traditional and new media have different
means of providing news to the masses.

a.       Tv and radio

Tv and radio companies have
ground based transmitter which sends electrical signals on the waves in the air
to reach a receiver. It travels kilometers away reaching a certain range of

In radio, the sound from the
sound source example is the voice or audio that the radio station wants to sent
to the listeners will be converted to electrical energy caused by the vibration
of charged particles, electrons. Its vibration can produce electricity and
magnetic fields. It follows the principle of electricity. When there is
interaction between particles electricity is produced there magnetism also is
present. The transmitter antenna moves electrical charges to produce signal
waves in space. The transmitter has an oscillator, a device that causes the
particles to move in a rapid motion. It can cause 1 000 000 cycles per second
or 1000 kilohertz to 1 megahertz. Also, a transformer is use in transmitter
antenna to modulate the strength of the radio wave. It changes the strength of
the wave based on the desired loudness of audio the radio station wanted to
transmit. (Yerkes Summer Institute, 2012)

Television like radio, make use
also of transmitter. It requires a much greater frequency because it carries audio
and visual information. Which means that the transformer modulates much greater
strength of the radio wave. Tv makes use of 54 to 88 MHz (Megahertz) and 174 to
222 MHz frequencies. These frequencies suggest different channels. Meanwhile,
radio utilizes 3KHz to 300 GHz frequencies. (Lumen Learning, 2017)

According to Tech-Faq (2016),
television broadcast works on having a transmitter. The audio and the video
signals from the sound and image source were converted to electrical energy
then sent by transmitters into the air waves for receivers which tv boxes at
home access. The receiver will receive the signal and make it into a signal
that can generate image and sound through vibrations. With the help of
technology like the Cathode Ray Tube, converts signals into visible light which
allows viewers see the program.

In addition, there are three ways
on how tv programs transmitted. First, through broadcast tv. It is where there
is a ground based transmitters of broadcasting companies that transmit the
signals both audio and video in the air waves and tv antennas can pick it for free
and viewers now can watch the tv program.

In the concepts of radio and tv
broadcasts, this relates to Ohm’s Law by George Simon Ohm. This law relates
voltage, current, and resistance. According to The Physics Classroom (2017),
Ohm’s Law states that voltage is equal to the product of the electric current
and resistance.

In the concept of radio wave
transmission, voltage can refer to the wave signal determined by the oscillator
that acts to make the charges vibrate. The signal strength depends on the flow
of radio waves in the space going to the receiver antenna and on resistance.
Resistance is the length of the receiver antenna and the transformer. The
antenna the stronger signal it can get. Transformer also modulates the strength
of the radio waves to be sent which can affect the signal received by the

b.      Wireless gadgets

Another way of getting news is
through wireless gadgets like cellphones, laptops, desktops, tablets, and etc.
these gadgets work on providing news through the Internet.

Me and My Shadow (2016), defined
the Internet as a group of networks that are interconnected with each other
through electronic, wireless, and optical technologies.

Engineers Garage (2012),
discussed that the Internet can be accessed in different ways based on the
gadget used. Using mobile devices, the Internet can be accessed through
telephone service providers or via Wi-Fi. The Wi-fi allows mobile devices to
connect to the Internet via data transfer.

Based on Commotion Wireless (2012),
Wi-Fi frequency ranges lies in 2.4 Gigahertz and 5 Gigahertz, higher than of
the tv and radio frequency. On the other hand, mobile devices connect to the
Internet through telephone services providers. Mobile devices have built in
antennas that connects to the cell towers through the radio waves. These towers
were operated by telephone service companies transmitting digital data to

However, personal computers have
different way of accessing the Internet. It makes use of Wireless Access Point
(WAP) which provides Internet connection by sharing of Internet access by
several computers from a single connection. The Internet Service Provider have
a cellular radio tower that reaches long distances to provide Internet access

In the electromagnetic spectrum,
waves are arranged according to their wavelengths and frequencies. The
measurement of their wavelengths and frequencies have inverse relationship. The
longer the wavelength the weaker the frequency and the shorter the wavelength
the stronger the frequency. According to Lumen Learning (2017), extremely low
frequency radio waves that are used in communicating under the water like in
submarines, happened because of the long wavelength of the waves. The longer
the wavelength the wider the range they can penetrate. The reason why radio and
television can still be accessible in areas away from its signal source because
radio and tv make use of longer wavelengths that can reach far locations
compared to those used by Wi-Fi connections. However, cellular signals and
Wi-Fi signals are weaker in areas away from their transmitters like cell towers
and internet towers because their wavelengths are shorter and there are some
factors that block the signal like mountains, trees, and etc., but they have
stronger frequencies.

the other hand, the concept of Coulomb’s Law relates to both tv and radio and
internet access. The concept that the nearer the receiver from the source
signal, the stronger the signal it receives. The Coulomb’s Law states that an
electrostatic force is directly proportional to the product of the charges and
inversely proportional to the square of the distance of the charges. (The
Physics Classroom, 2017)

The Concept of fake

            In an article in CNN Philippines by Bueno (2017), it
was stated there by a veteran journalist, Ellen Tordesillas of Vera Files
organization, that ‘fake news’ is an oxymoron for the word ‘lies’. Oxymoron was
defined in Literary devices (2017), as a figure of speech that presents two
opposing ideas being joined together. In the word fake news, two opposing ideas
are fake and news. Fake means not true or genuine and news have a concept that
guarantees credibility and truthfulness.

            Allcott and Gentzkow (2017), defined
‘fake news’ as news stories that were false and misleading and were made that
way intentionally. They also determined where ‘fake news’ came from when they
conducted a study on 2016 elections in United States. They pointed out that
‘fake news’ came from social media. 62 percent of adults in US access news on
social media, most fake news was widely shared on Facebook over legitimate news
websites. They also added that ‘fake news’ came from websites that were created
to spread false information.

            In the Philippines, Catholic Bishops
Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) showed public the list of popular websites
that contains ‘fake news’.


Pinoy Trending –

Pinoy Trending News –

Public Trending –

FilipiNews PH –

Trending News Portal –

Classified trends –

Definitely Filipino –

Duterte News Info –

Extreme Readers –

Get Real Philippines –


Guard1an –

Kalye Pinoy –

Leak News PH –

Media ni Duterte –

Minda Nation –

Netizens PH –

News Media PH –

News Titans –

OKD2 –

Pinoy Freedom Wall –

Pinoy Viral Issues –

Pinoy Viral News –

PinoyWorld –

SocialNewsPH –

TahoNews –

TheVolatilian –

Thinking Pinoy –

TrendingBalita –

TrendTitan –

















Chapter 3

Design and Methodology

            Chapter 3 presents (1) the design of the study and
(2) the methodology which consists of details about respondents, research
instruments, and process and procedure.

Research Design

            This study focused on determining
the concepts of Physics on how gadgets work in providing news information and
its relevance to the rise of fake news. This study used a survey research and
through this it looked forward to spot the relevance of the most common used
gadget as source of news to the emergence of fake news when locations were
compared. Locations on nearby town area, locations kilometers away from nearby
town, and as a whole.



            Respondents were residents of
Janiuay, Iloilo. Using the Slovin’s Formula, respondents were determined.
Slovin’s formula includes the total population of the target area and the
margin of error in determining sample size. Based on the 2015 Census, Janiuay
has 63 905 total population. Using the formula, it resulted to 398 sample size.
These sample size were divided into two, the half would be the respondents away
from the nearby town, and the other half would be the respondents who were
residing on nearby town areas. They were randomly selected for this study. The
respondents have their acess to tv, radio, cellphones or computers.


            After the respondents were
determined, researchers made a questionnaire containing personal and factual
questions with regard to the manner on how respondents access news and their
familiarity to famous fake news that spring up in the society. The respondents
were given set of questions having possible choices to be answered and each choices
correspond to a specific level of intensity of what is asked from them
credibility of the questionnaire was guaranteed because it was validated by
three persons who have been gurus in the field of our study.

and Procedure

            In determining respondents Slovin’s
formula was used. The conduct of the survey to respondents was done carried an
in the stage of determining the results of the study. To come up with the
results, researchers used statistical analysis. The average mean, range,
standard deviation and variance were solved from the results of the survey.
Results were understood and evaluated by the researchers to come up with a
solution that will benefit the society.