The and thermal expansion coefficient[ 11- 21, 22].

The Nano-technology phrase originating from two words consist of the Greek numerical prefix nano referring to a billionth and the technology word 1-2. As an outcome, Nano-technology or Nano-scaled technology is commonly considered to be at a size under 100 nm (a Nano-meter is 10-9 m) 1-2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 2. Refractories: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 2. Refractories: 2.1. Introduction: According to the ASTM C 71, the refractories are a “non-metallic materials having those physical and chemical properties that lead to them applicable for structures or as components of systems that are exposed to environments above 538°C 11, 16. On the other hand, some references defined refractories as nonmetallic and in organic material with high tolerate at high temperature without changing in their properties (such as physical and chemical) or 11-13, 16-20. As well as, according to the operating situation, they should to have high thermal shock resistant, be chemically inert, and have defined ranges of thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient 11- 21, 22. It is obvious that refractories have an important role in glassmaking, metallurgical, and ceramic crafts, where they are generated into a variety of shapes to line the inside of furnaces or kilns or other tools for producing the materials at high temperatures 23-25. Some of the technological and scientific inventions and advances would not have been possible without refractory materials. Producing 1Kg of any metal without utilize of refractory is almost fully impracticable 26-29.The background of using refractory materials dates back to as mankind begin to progress metallurgical procedure. The first refractor raw material was clay. Up to the nineteenth century, refractory goods were made of natural ores, such as magnesite, dolomite stones and clay.it was at the end of the eighteenth century and beginning of nineteenth century that the basis of modern metal beneficiation, the development of Portland cement and of modern glass processes started to inflict