When from 620 nm. However, the poor performance

When
it comes to large scale manufacturing and commercialization of lead based
perovskite solar cells is that they may release lead into the environment
causing significant environmental impact and has very low stability in ambient
condition. Hence, the overall process is carried out in nitrogen gas
environment to avoid degradation. In this context, future of PSC is based on
lead free based perovskite solar cells, with maintaining the stringent criteria
to match the optical and electrical properties of lead-halide perovskite1819.

            One visible option for Pb
replacement is monovalent substitution of another group 14 metals, such as Ge
or Sn which have a similar electronics configuration as Pb. But also transitions
metals, alkaline-earth metals and lanthanides can also be considered for
alternative replacement of lead. 20 Germanium iodide
perovskite (MAGeI3) has strong potential in photovoltaic applications.
While germanium have very good optoelectronics properties with relatively
smooth morphology. Hence the device exhibits photocurrent density of 4 mA cm-2
with absorption visible spectrum starts from 620 nm. However, the poor
performance of the cell is due to the formation of Ge4+ ions by
oxidation. But improving the stability issue and new optimization approaches over
increasing the PCE of germanium and tin halide perovskite is currently in the
research focus of many groups of the perovsWhen
it comes to large scale manufacturing and commercialization of lead based
perovskite solar cells is that they may release lead into the environment
causing significant environmental impact and has very low stability in ambient
condition. Hence, the overall process is carried out in nitrogen gas
environment to avoid degradation. In this context, future of PSC is based on
lead free based perovskite solar cells, with maintaining the stringent criteria
to match the optical and electrical properties of lead-halide perovskite1819.

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            One visible option for Pb
replacement is monovalent substitution of another group 14 metals, such as Ge
or Sn which have a similar electronics configuration as Pb. But also transitions
metals, alkaline-earth metals and lanthanides can also be considered for
alternative replacement of lead. 20 Germanium iodide
perovskite (MAGeI3) has strong potential in photovoltaic applications.
While germanium have very good optoelectronics properties with relatively
smooth morphology. Hence the device exhibits photocurrent density of 4 mA cm-2
with absorption visible spectrum starts from 620 nm. However, the poor
performance of the cell is due to the formation of Ge4+ ions by
oxidation. But improving the stability issue and new optimization approaches over
increasing the PCE of germanium and tin halide perovskite is currently in the
research focus of many groups of the perovskite community. Similarly, 21Tin halide perovskite
with the device configuration of Tio2/CH3NH3SnI3/spiro-OMeTAD
results in enhancement of absorption visible spectrum 950 nm, featuring an
ideal bandgap of 1.3 eV with PCE of 5.73%. But when compared to lead
perovskite, tin halide perovskite has very low atmospheric stability.18Another possible route
for lead free perovskite is the combination of higher valent metal cations and
vacancies to accommodate the total charge neutrality, which leads to change in
structure (A3B2X9)-type perovskite. In
reference 22, the authors
investigated that Methylammonium iodo bismuthate (CH3NH3)3Bi2I9
(i.e.(A3B2X9)-type structure) is the
promising alternative for lead perovskite due to its excellent optoelectronics
properties. It also shows a good performance with current density of 0.8 mA cm-2
which is stable for 10 weeks under ambient condition. However, the power
conversion efficiency is only 0.2%.  kite community. Similarly, 21Tin halide perovskite
with the device configuration of Tio2/CH3NH3SnI3/spiro-OMeTAD
results in enhancement of absorption visible spectrum 950 nm, featuring an
ideal bandgap of 1.3 eV with PCE of 5.73%. But when compared to lead
perovskite, tin halide perovskite has very low atmospheric stability.18Another possible route
for lead free perovskite is the combination of higher valent metal cations and
vacancies to accommodate the total charge neutrality, which leads to change in
structure (A3B2X9)-type perovskite. In
reference 22, the authors
investigated that Methylammonium iodo bismuthate (CH3NH3)3Bi2I9
(i.e.(A3B2X9)-type structure) is the
promising alternative for lead perovskite due to its excellent optoelectronics
properties. It also shows a good performance with current density of 0.8 mA cm-2
which is stable for 10 weeks under ambient condition. However, the power
conversion efficiency is only 0.2%.